Introduction and Anomalies 

1. Introduction and Anomalies (credibility and address anomalies to make discoveries)
The Ultra-Deep Hydrothermal (UDH) process has been developed through funding for exploration projects by mining and petroleum companies over the last 45 years. Observations and insights made during these exploration projects led to the Layered Earth model, which has allowed the prediction of various types of ore deposits and petroleum targets. The ensuing UDH model explains the anomalies in the conventional model of the origin of oil. The UDH process uses a ‘deep to the seep’ or high energy/temperature to low energy/temperature origin of oil to explain these anomalies as part of a serpentinization/hydrogenation hydrothermal process culminating in mud volcanoes and seeps. A brief summary of the UDH process sets the stage for the 13-week webinar course.