5 Super-critical to sub-critical boundary – Diamondoids (from mantle to brine component, lower to mid-crust)
Where did the diamondoids in oil come from? In the early 2000s, diamondoid hydrocarbons were discovered in bituminous pipe scales in Louisiana pipelines. Diamond compounds have a diamond structure identical to those that classically occurs in high-temperature, high-pressure, kimberlite pipes. Subsequent research has shown that diamondoids are present in almost every oil. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments have shown that diamondoid formation is maximized in California oils at 375-475° oC. These high-temperature compounds are highly anomalous to the conventional oil model. The conventional model typically interprets these compounds as a highly refractory indicator leftover from ultimate oil maturation. In contrast, the UDH model interprets these high-temperature hydrocarbons as the beginning of the hydrothermal oil process, not the end of the hydrocarbon degradation process.