Week 5 Super-critical to sub-critical boundary – Diamondoids
Where did the diamondoids in oil come from? In the early 2000s, diamondoid hydrocarbons were discovered in bituminous pipe scales in Louisiana pipelines. Diamond compounds have a diamond structure identical to those that classically occurs in high-temperature, high-pressure, kimberlite pipes. Subsequent research has shown that diamondoids are present in almost every oil. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments have shown that diamondoid formation is maximized in California oils at 375-475° oC. These high-temperature compounds are highly anomalous to the conventional oil model. The conventional model typically interprets these compounds as a highly refractory indicator leftover from ultimate oil maturation. In contrast, the UDH model interprets these high-temperature hydrocarbons as the beginning of the hydrothermal oil process, not the end of the hydrocarbon degradation process.
Week 6 Dolomitization, Silicification, Argillization and Late Carbonates – Calcite in UDH context (Sucrosic and saddle dolomite, silica and quarts, clays and black shales)
The crystallization of other oxygen-rich minerals, such as dolomite, quartz, clay, and calcite, also contribute to the process of hydrogenation of kerogen by grabbing the oxygen from water, leaving the hydrogen free to attach to the kerogen. Sucrosic (sugary) dolomites are among the first to crystallize, followed by silica (quartz), clay (illite) in black shales, saddle dolomites, and finally calcite.